Acute Viral Hepatitis A – Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiological Characteristics
Background and Aims: Infection with hepatitis A virus is still one of the most common causes of hepatitis worldwide. The clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA) in adults can vary greatly, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe and fulminant hepatitis. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory features and hospital outcome of adult patients with AHA over a consecutive period of 4 years within an area from Eastern European country.
Methods: Two hundred and two adult patients diagnosed with AHA were retrospective, observational and analytic analized over a period of 4 years. Based on prothrombin time less than 50, the study group was stratified in medium (79.2%) and severe forms (20.8%). We investigated the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features. Statistical analysis were applied to compare the medium and severe forms of AHA.
Results: Most patients (72.7%) were younger than 40 years. The main symptoms included: dyspepsia (72.07%), jaundice (86.63%), asteno-adynamia (86.72%), and flu-like symptoms (53.46%). The hemorrhagic cutaneous-mucous manifestations (6.93%) associated with the severe forms of AHA (OR =12.19, 95%CI -3.59 - 41.3, p =0.001). We found statistically significant differences for PT (p <0.001), INR (p <0.001), TQ (p <0.001), ALAT (p <0.001), ASAT (p <0.001), ALP (p <0.001) and platelets (p =0.009) between severe and medium AHA forms. We found that TQ, INR, ALAT and ASAT have the highest diagnostic values, statistically significant (p <0.05 ) for severe AHA forms with AUC (0.99, 0.99, 0.72, 0.70) at values of sensitivity (95%, 90.5%, 89%, 95%) and specificity (98%, 99%, 88%,94%).
Medium severity AHA forms were found in most of the study group patients (79.2%). The severe AHA forms were associated with hemorrhagic cutaneous-mucous manifestations (OR =12.19, p =0.001). The univariate analysis proved a negatively statistically significant correlation between IP and ALAT, ASAT. The present study revealed that TQ, INR and ALAT have the highest diagnostic values and are statistically significant for severe AHA forms.