Risk Factors and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Maramureş
Aims: We looked for the factors which can be adjust in order to reduce the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in Maramureş County, Romania.Methods: We done a cross-sectional study of 1269 persons with diabetes mellitus registered in the healthcare system in Maramureş. The signs of diabetic retinopathy were ascertained from retinal digital photographs. We analyzed different parameters: demographics (age, gender, smoking status, alcohol use, living areas, socioeconomic status); physical measurements (body mass index BMI, abdominal circumference); laboratory measurements (glycemic control, lipid profile, the degree of proteinuria) diabetes characteristics (duration, type, other complications) and characteristics of comorbid diseases. Results: The total number of patients with retinopathy was 246. From these 94 (38.2%) have mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) 78 (31.7%) have moderate NPDR, 52 (21.1%) have severe NPDR and 22 (9.0%) have proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Among our patients 3.2% had maculopathy (0.6% mild, 0.6% moderate and 2.0% severe). The risk factors associated with severity of retinopahy were: diabetes duration (p=0.000), HbA1c (p=0.005), presence of nephropathy (p=0.004), presence of polineuropathy (p=0.002). Risk factors associated with severity of maculopathy was presence of nephropathy (p=0.000). Conclusions: A positive correlation between diabetes duration and diabetes control and severity of retinopathy was found. Severity of retinopathy was higher in the presence of nephropathy and polineuropathy. Severity of maculopathy was higher in the presence of nefropathy.