One of the most reliable in vivo examination methods of human microvasculature is represented by ophthalmoscopy. Due to ophthalmoscopy, retinal circulation can reveal multiple morphological details that can serve as diagnosis biomarkers for retinal vessels diseases. Since retinal vessels are a component of carotid circulation that is designed to brain tissue, there are similarities between retina and brain circulation that can open the opportunity to an indirect assessment of the cerebral microcirculation by fundus examination. Fractal analysis of retinal microcirculation is one of the most exact methods that can offer mathematical details regarding the morphological characteristics of retinal circulation and, in the same time, regarding cerebral microcirculation. The aim of this paper was to describe the implication of fractal analysis of retinal circulation as diagnosis and prediction tools for cerebral ischemic diseases. The fractal analysis could represent a performant non-invasive method that can offer precise details regarding retinal circulation features that can be used as biomarkers in cerebral ischemic diseases.


Retinal vessels, Fractal analysis, Cerebral microcirculation, Cerebral small vessel diseases, Cerebral ischemia