Introduction: Since 2013, we have built a 3D Virtual Dissection Laboratory, at the Human
Anatomy Department of our University. The laboratory includes off-the-shelf hardware and
Free/Open Source Software: an advanced 2D virtual dissection table, based on multitouch (50+
touchpoints) and a 3D display matrix, using passive 3D glasses. For the software, we have used
various Free/Open Source Software for Virtual Anatomy. Thus, even today, this lab is one of
the most advanced 3D virtual dissection lab in the World. But, it is only one such virtual lab in
our University, clearly insufficient for the needs of our thousands students. Because of these
reasons our next goal was to develop a virtual dissection lab ready to be used on regular
smartphones (Android and/or IOS OS), thus being available to every student who owns such
off-the-shelf hardware. Materials and methods: For the development we have used some regular
Android smartphones and Bluestacks Android emulator for Windows (www.bluestacks.com).
The 3D files for Human Anatomy were reconstructed by us from various Free/Open Source
Software and Libraries dedicated to Human Anatomy. Results: The reconstructed 3D anatomical
models for Human Anatomy were afterwards incapsulated in a 3D PDF file, ready to be opened
using the free 3D PDF reader, available on Google Play or Apple Store. That reader is able to
provide a 3D virtual working environment for the users, that includes:  Selection/Reveal or
Hiding of a specific Human organ and/or system, single or together with other related
anatomical structures;  Dissection of the Human Body and/or anatomical structures, on X,
Y or Z (3D) coordinates; and  Possibility of saving a specific Virtual Dissection session, using
screen capture utilities available on Android Smartphone, etc. Conclusion: Our research and
development have clearly demonstrated the possibility to provide and run a Next-Generation
Virtual Dissection Lab using off-the-shelf hardware (Android smartphones), a 3D PDF reader
and Human Anatomy models developed on-site by us.


Virtual anatomy, Virtual 3D dissection, Off-the-shelf hardware, 3D PDF