The technology of biological chips offers a fundamentally new approach to understanding the function and expression of genes. Microminiaturisation of current DNA and protein analysis techniques will accelerate the identification of targets associated with specific disease and provide efficient tools for the development of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Biological chips consist of an orderly arrangement of DNA or oligopeptides deposited or synthesised on a surface, to which a sample containing the target DNA or protein sequence is hybridised. Hybridisation generates a signal processed by a specialised computer, leading to rapid and high throughput sample analysis. This review describes current procedures used in biological microchip technology and highlights some actual clinical and research applications.


DNA chips, Microarrays, Molecular diagnostics.