The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and the Cluster of Metabolic Syndrome Components in Person with and without Glucose Level Abnormalities
Objectives: to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, to observe the cluster of metabolic syndrome components, to compare the groups with/ without metabolic syndrome and to quantify the level of cardiovascular risk. Methods: A screening in the military population was performed, including male and female with age at least 20 years, without or diagnosed with diabetes/ impaired fasting glucose / obesity/ hypertension. The anthropometrics parameters, body fat percent and blood pressure were measured; was collected blood for glycemia and lipid profile, renal and hepatic function; the level of physical activity, smoking status, the personal associated diseases and family history of cardiovascular diseases was noted. Were calculated IRIS 2 score of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk using EURO’98 charts, Framingham Score and SCORE system. The metabolic syndrome diagnosis was performed using the American Diabetes Association 2005 criteria. The group of studied person was divided in four parts: with normal glycemia, impaired fasting glucose, newly diagnosed diabetes and diabetes with more than one year. Results: In the studied group of 455 persons, the majority were males, from urban area, Romanian people. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the entire group was around 60% and its prevalence increased with age and together with glycemic disturbances. In persons without dysglycemia, more than 65% from three asociated components were waist, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia and 28.12% of persons have met four components. Hyperglicemia was mainly combined with waist and hypertriglyceridemia in impaired fasting glycemia and with waist and hypertension in diabetes irrespective of diabetes duration. In these groups, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome exceeded 80%. When four component of metabolic syndrome are combined, waist, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia are associated in person with dysglicemia. From the components of metabolic syndrome waist has the highest prevalence, folowed by hypertriglyceridemia and hipertension(almost equal to 75%), disglycemia (about 50%) and a low HDL cholesterol was found in one third of persons. The cardiovascular risk is significant higher in persons with metabolic sindrome, irrespective of methods used to evaluation of this risk. The level of cardiovascular risk was significant higher in the groups of persons with dysglycemia and highest in the case of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients; more than 20% of studied persons have a high cardiovascular risk, assessed by different systems. Conclusions: These results show that the metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the military adult population. This may have major implications for the incidence of CVD. The main cluster of metabolic syndrome were as three components- waist, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia in persons without disglycemia, waist and hypertriglyceridemia combined with hyperglicemia in impaired fasting glycemia, waist and hypertension combined with hyperglicemia in diabetes irrespective of diabetes duration. When four component of metabolic syndrome are combined, waist, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia are associated in person with dysglicemia. A low HDL cholesterol has the lowest prevalence in comparison with the other components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndromes represents a “negative” condition, with a augmentation together with the age. The cardiovascular risk is significant higher in persons with metabolic syndromes, irrespective of methods used to evaluation of this risk. Is necessary an active attitude to promote a healthy lifestyle in the respect of prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity.